Año 2021 / Volumen 28 / Suplemento 1

Artículo Monográfico Osteoartritis

Infiltraciones de esteroides y ácido hialurónico en la artrosis
Infiltrations of steroids and hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis

Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor. 2021; 28(13): 64-72 / DOI: 10.20986/resed.2021.3854/2020

Félix Francisco


RESUMEN

Los esteroides intrarticulares (CS IA) se utilizan con frecuencia para el tratamiento del dolor de los pacientes con artrosis (OA) (tanto de rodilla como cadera), sobre todo en fases tempranas, con un comienzo de acción rápido proporcionando una mejoría a corto plazo (1-6 semanas). Los CS IA no mejoran clínica ni significativamente la función articular de rodillas o caderas (rigidez, distancia caminada ni movilidad articular) ni la calidad de vida. La eficacia de los CS IA en la OA de manos es menos evidente. El riesgo de efectos adversos precoces con el uso de CS IA es muy bajo. Sin embargo, los CS IA parece que producen efectos secundarios sobre el cartílago articular dependientes del tiempo y dosis. La tasa de infección después de una artroplastia de cadera no aumenta con las infiltraciones intrarticulares, siempre que pase suficiente tiempo entre la infiltración y la artroplastia (al menos 3-6 meses).
En pacientes con OA de rodilla, el ácido hialurónico intrarticular (AH IA) se ha mostrado eficaz en el control del dolor a medio plazo (5-13 semanas) que se puede mantener a largo plazo (26 semanas) con resultados funcionales menos evidentes. La eficacia del AH en el control del dolor y la funcionalidad en los pacientes con OA de cadera y manos es menos evidente. Los efectos secundarios del AH son locales, generalmente leves y transitorios. No está bien establecido si son más frecuentes con AH de alto peso molecular, AH de origen aviar o con repetidas inyecciones.
Las infiltraciones guiadas por imagen, en particular con ecografía, pueden mejorar la fiabilidad de la ubicación de la infiltración de CS o AH, sobre todo en cadera.



ABSTRACT

Intra-articular steroids (IA CS) are frequently used for the treatment of pain in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of both the knee and the hip, especially in the early stages, with a rapid onset of action providing shortterm pain relief (1-6 weeks). IA CS do not clinically or significantly improve joint function of the knees or hips (stiffness, distance walked, or joint mobility) or quality of life. The efficacy of IA CS in hand OA is less evident. The risk of early adverse effects with the use of IA corticosteroids is very low. However, IA CS appear to have time- and dose-dependent side effects on articular cartilage. The infection rate after hip replacement does not increase with intra-articular injections, as long as there is enough time between the injection and the replacement (at least 3-6 months).
In patients with knee OA, intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA HA) has been shown to be effective in controlling pain in the medium term (5-13 weeks) that can be maintained until the long term (26 weeks) with less obvious functional results. The efficacy of HA in pain control and functionality in patients with hip and hand OA is less evident. The side effects of HA are local, generally mild and transitory. It is not well established if they are more frequent with HA of high molecular weight, HA of avian origin or repeated injections.
Image-guided injections, particularly with ultrasound, can improve the reliability of the CS or HA injection location, especially in the hip.





Artículo Completo

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Francisco F. Infiltraciones de esteroides y ácido hialurónico en la artrosis. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 2021; 28(13): 64-72 / DOI: 1020986/resed20213854/2020


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