Year 2020 / Volume 27 / Number 2

Original

Efficacy of a preincisional analgesic strategy with ibuprofen, paracetamol and dexamethasone in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective observational study

Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor. 2020; 27(2): 104-112 / DOI: 10.20986/resed.2020.3778/2019

María Pérez, Servando López, Susana Galindo Menéndez, Andrés López García


ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate efficacy and security with a multimodal preventive analgesic technique (intravenous paracetamol, ibuprofen, dexametasone and local anesthetic infiltration incision) in postoperative pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Methodology: Observational prospective study in laparoscopic cholecystectomy under common anesthetic protocol and multimodal pre-incisional analgesia using intravenous ibuprofen (800 mg), paracetamol (1 g), dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) and 0.5 % bupivacaine portals infiltration. Analgesic rescue with metamizole (2 g) and morphine clorure (1 mg boluses). We noted pain grade, rescue analgesia, anesthetic-chirurgic complications and satisfaction level at five moments: in UCPA stay (20 min and 2 h after surgery and before discharge) and 24 h after surgery.
Results: 112 patients: 71 women and 41 men, 61.15 ± 16.23 aged; 76.20 ± 12.68 kg weight, surgery time of 92.11 ± 30.64 minutes; 1.91 ± 15,78 microgrames/kg/h fentanyl doses; ASA I (34,8 %), II (40,2 %), III (22,3 %) y IV (2,7 %). Two maximum pain peaks: at 20 min and at 24 h after the intervention and during movement. Severe pain and additional analgesia in 23 cases, and need for morphine chloride boluses in 6. Thirty cases complications were documented: emesis in 17 people (15.18 %), venous irritability in 10 cases (8.93 %) and hemodynamic instability in 3 cases (2.68 %).
Conclusions: The multimodal analgesic strategy used in this study provided effective analgesia with fast, highquality anesthetic-surgical recovery in most patients. In case it was need, low perioperative opioid requirements. Low rate and severity of perioperative complications, which facilitated high outpatient surgery rates.



RESUMEN

Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de una técnica analgésica preventiva multimodal utilizando dexametasona, ibuprofeno y paracetamol preincisionales como estrategia analgésica perioperatoria tras colecistectomía laparoscópica.
Metodología: Estudio observacional prospectivo en pacientes sometidos a colecistectomía laparoscópica bajo un protocolo anestésico común y analgesia preincisional multimodal con ibuprofeno (800 mg), paracetamol (1 g) y dexametasona (0,1 mg/kg) intravenosos e infiltración de portales de inserción de trócares con bupivacaína 0,5 %; medicación analgésica intravenosa de rescate con metamizol (2 g) y cloruro mórfico (bolus de 1 mg). Se registraron intensidades de dolor mediante escala verbal numérica y escala categórica en reposo y movimiento, necesidad y dosis de analgesia de rescate, complicaciones anestésico-quirúrgicas y grado de satisfacción en Unidad de Recuperación Postanestésica (a los 20 min, 2 h de su ingreso y al alta) y a las 24 h de la intervención.
Resultados: Se analizaron datos de 112 pacientes: 71 mujeres y 41 hombres, con una media de edad de 61,15 ± 16,23 años; un peso medio de 76,20 ± 12,68 kg; duración del tiempo quirúrgico (entre incisión cutánea y cierre de portales de inserción de trócares fue de 92,11 ± 30,64 min); se utilizaron dosis intraoperatorias de 1,91 ± 15,78 mcgs/kg/h de fentanilo; el estado físico se calificó como de ASA I (34,8 %), II (40,2 %), III (22,3 %) y IV (2,7 %). Se objetivaron 2 picos máximos de dolor: a los 20 min y a las 24 h de intervención, más intenso en movimiento (inspiración forzada). En 23 casos se registró la presencia de dolor agudo intenso que requirió analgesia adicional (necesidad de cloruro mórfico en 6 casos). Se documentaron 30 casos de complicaciones perioperatorias: 17 (15,18 %) pacientes refirieron náuseas y/o vómitos, 10 (8,93 %) irritabilidad venosa y 3 (2,68 %) inestabilidad hemodinámica.
Conclusiones: La estrategia analgésica multimodal utilizada en este estudio proporcionó una analgesia eficaz con recuperación anestésico-quirúrgica rápida y de alta calidad en la mayoría de los pacientes, con bajos requerimientos de opioides perioperatorios, en los casos en los que se precisó. Baja incidencia y gravedad de complicaciones perioperatorias, lo que facilitó tasas elevadas de cirugía ambulatoria.





Complete Article

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Instrucciones para citar

Pérez M, López S, Galindo Menéndez S, López García A. Efficacy of a preincisional analgesic strategy with ibuprofen, paracetamol and dexamethasone in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective observational study. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 2020; 27(2): 104-112 / DOI: 1020986/resed20203778/2019


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Recibido: 04/11/2019

Aceptado: 28/01/2020

Prepublicado: 12/03/2020

Publicado: 17/04/2020

Tiempo de revisión del artículo: 77 días

Tiempo de prepublicación: 129 días

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