Year 2020 / Volume 27 / Number 1

Original

Effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia in acute and chronic pain after cardiac surgery: a prospective study

Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor. 2020; 27(1): 24-36 / DOI: 10.20986/resed.2020.3747/2019

Neus Esteve Pérez, Javier Iborra-Escalona, German Gómez-Romero, Cristina Sansaloni-Perelló, Antonia M Verger-Bennasar, Silvia Tejada-Gavela, María Riera-Sagrera, Luis Carlos Mora-Fernandez


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The intensity of postoperative moderate/intense pain after cardiac surgery (CC), varies according to the different studies, from 45 % to 85 %. There is no evidence about which is the optimal analgesic regimen in the postoperative period.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of a multimodal analgesic protocol, based on patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC).
Patients and methods: Prospective observational study of all patients undergoing CS with ECC, during the first 3 days postoperatively. There were included 102 patients in two periods, first, in November 2016 with conventional analgesia and second, in January - February 2017 with PCA.
Results: The pain at rest was controlled (median numerical scale <3). An average of 27 % of moderate and intense pain was recorded. There was no difference in pain intensity between patients with CA and those with PCA. The PCA group required less rescue analgesia in the first postoperative days (63 % vs. 44 % p = 0.0487). The incidence of Post-surgical Chronic Pain was 39 % at three months, and 3 % at one year. There was a correlation between preoperative pain and anxiety with the intensity of the dynamic pain (r = 0.287, p = 0.03).
Conclusions: PCA with on-demand opioids and multimodal analgesia is an effective alternative after cardiac surgery. Good control of postoperative pain is obtained without increasing adverse effects, and requiring less rescue analgesia administered by the nursing staff.



RESUMEN

Introducción: La intensidad del dolor postoperatorio moderado-intenso después de una cirugía cardiaca (CC) varía, según los estudios, de un 45 a un 85 %. No existe evidencia sobre cuál es la pauta analgésica óptima en el postoperatorio de estos pacientes.
El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la efectividad de la aplicación de un protocolo analgésico multimodal, basado en la analgesia controlada por el paciente (PCA) con morfina, en pacientes sometidos a CC con circulación extracorpórea (CEC).
Pacientes y métodos: Estudio prospectivo de todos los pacientes sometidos a CC con CEC, durante los primeros 3 días del postoperatorio (DPO). Se incluyeron 102 pacientes en dos periodos, noviembre de 2016, con analgesia convencional (AC) y enero-febrero de 2017 con PCA.
Resultados: El dolor en reposo se mantuvo controlado (mediana escala numérica < 3). Se registró un 27 % de pacientes con dolor moderado e intenso. No hubo diferencias en la intensidad del dolor entre los pacientes con AC y los de PCA. El grupo de PCA precisó menos analgesia de rescate (63 vs. 44 %, p = 0,0487). La incidencia de dolor crónico postquirúrgico fue de un 39 % a los tres meses y un 3 % al año. El dolor y la ansiedad preoperatorios se correlacionaron con la intensidad del dolor dinámico (r = 0,287, p = 0,03).
Conclusiones: La PCA con opioides a demanda y analgesia multimodal es una alternativa efectiva después de la CC. Se obtiene un buen control del dolor postoperatorio sin incrementar los efectos adversos y precisando menos analgesia de rescate administrada por enfermería.





Complete Article

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Tablas y Figuras

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Instrucciones para citar

Esteve Pérez N, Iborra-Escalona J, Gómez-Romero G, Sansaloni-Perelló C, Verger-Bennasar A, Tejada-Gavela S, et all. Effectiveness of patient-controlled analgesia in acute and chronic pain after cardiac surgery: a prospective study. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 2020; 27(1): 24-36 / DOI: 1020986/resed20203747/2019


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Recibido: 02/06/2019

Aceptado: 02/01/2020

Prepublicado: 22/01/2020

Publicado: 19/02/2020

Tiempo de revisión del artículo: 188 días

Tiempo de prepublicación: 234 días

Tiempo de edición del artículo: 262 días


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