Year 2021 / Volume 28 / Number 2

Original

Postoperative ketamine efficacy in patients receiving chronic opioids undergoing spinal surgery

Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor. 2021; 28(2): 92-99 / DOI: 10.20986/resed.2021.3825/2020

Uxía Rodríguez, Lourdes Trillo, Joana García, Esther Vila, María Soldevilla


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The number of patients receiving chronic opioids undergoing spinal surgery has increased lately. Elevate records in visual analog scale (VAS) and opioid consumption are higher in this group of patients.
Material and methods: Following the recommendations of the American Pain Society (APS), a new intra and postoperative analgesic protocol based on the use of ketamine was designed in 2018. Intraoperatively, a bolus of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine was administered, followed by a dose infusion of 0.2 mg/kg/h until the surgical wound was closed. During the first 48 postoperative hours, a patient-controlled analgesia pump (PCA) of morphine-ketamine was maintained along with a multimodal analgesia regimen with paracetamol and dexketoprofen. An effectiveness analysis comparing the new protocol (ketamine group) with the previous one (control group), based on the use of tramadol 100 mg / 6h or PCA morphine, was done. During the first 48 postoperative hours, NVS records, need of rescue analgesia, morphine bolus or continuous morphine infusion (control group) or ketamine morphine infusion (ketamine group) were analyzed.
Results: The patients in the ketamine group had lower NVS records than those in the control group during the first two postoperative hours (p = 0.001) and lower morphine rescues needs on the second postoperative day (p = 0.003). The need for continuous morphine-ketamine perfusion was significantly lower than the need for continuous morphine perfusion on the control group (p = 0.011).
Conclusion: The protocol based on the use of ketamine, managed to improve the control of postoperative pain and significantly reduce the consumption of opioids in the first 48 hours after the intervention.



RESUMEN

Introducción: El número de pacientes en tratamiento con opioides de forma crónica sometidos a una cirugía espinal ha aumentado en los últimos años. Los registros de dolor mediante la escala visual analógica (EVA) y el consumo de opioides durante el postoperatorio son más elevados en esta clase de pacientes.
Material y métodos: Siguiendo las recomendaciones de la American Pain Society (APS), en 2018 se diseñó un nuevo protocolo analgésico intra y postoperatorio basado en el uso de ketamina. En el intraoperatorio, se administró un bolus de 0,5 mg/kg de ketamina, seguido por una perfusión a dosis de 0,2 mg/kg/h hasta el cierre de la herida. Durante las 48 horas postoperatorias, se mantuvo una bomba de analgesia controlada por el paciente (PCA) de morfina-ketamina junto con un régimen de analgesia multimodal con paracetamol y dexketoprofeno. Se realizó un análisis de la efectividad del nuevo protocolo (grupo ketamina) comparándolo con el protocolo seguido el año anterior (grupo control), basado en el uso de tramadol 100 mg/6 h o PCA de morfina. Se analizaron los registros de dolor mediante la escala verbal numérica (EVN) durante las primeras 48 horas postoperatorias, la necesidad de administración de bolus puntuales de morfina y la necesidad de iniciar una perfusión continua de morfina (grupo control) o morfina ketamina (grupo ketamina).
Resultados: Los pacientes del grupo ketamina presentaron EVN inferiores a los del grupo control durante las dos primeras horas postoperatorias (p = 0,001) y menores necesidades de rescates de morfina en el segundo día postoperatorio (p = 0,003). La necesidad de perfusión continua de morfina-ketamina fue significativamente inferior a la necesidad de inicio de perfusión continua de morfina en el grupo control (p = 0,011).
Conclusión: El protocolo basado en el uso de ketamina consiguió mejorar el control del dolor postoperatorio y reducir de forma significativa el consumo de opioides en las primeras 48 horas tras la intervención.





Complete Article

Bibliografía

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Tablas y Figuras

Figure 1

Table I

Table II

Table III

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Figure 4

Anexos

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Instrucciones para citar

Rodríguez U, Trillo L, García J, Vila E, Soldevilla M. Postoperative ketamine efficacy in patients receiving chronic opioids undergoing spinal surgery. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 2021; 28(2): 92-99 / DOI: 1020986/resed20213825/2020


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Recibido: 10/06/2020

Aceptado: 22/03/2021

Prepublicado: 12/05/2021

Publicado: 28/05/2021

Tiempo de revisión del artículo: 254 días

Tiempo de prepublicación: 336 días

Tiempo de edición del artículo: 352 días


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